Stretching and Flexibility - Normal Ranges of Joint Motion

Normal Ranges of Joint Motion

According to Kurz, the following tables indicates the normal ranges of joint motion for various parts of the body:


Flexion: 70-90 degrees
Touch sternum with chin.

Extension: 55 degrees
Try to point up with chin.

Lateral bending: 35 degrees
Bring ear close to shoulder.

Rotation: 70 degrees left & right
Turn head to the left, then right.

Lumbar Spine

Flexion: 75 degrees
Bend forward at the waist.

Extension: 30 degrees
Bend backward.

Lateral bending: 35 degrees
Bend to the side.


Abduction: 180 degrees
Bring arm up sideways.

Adduction: 45 degrees
Bring arm toward the midline of the body.

Horizontal extension: 45 degrees
Swing arm horizontally backward.

Horizontal flexion: 130 degrees
Swing arm horizontally forward.

Vertical extension: 60 degrees
Raise arm straight backward.

Vertical flexion: 180 degrees
Raise arm straight forward.


Flexion: 150 degrees
Bring lower arm to the biceps

Extension: 180 degrees
Straighten out lower arm.

Supination: 90 degrees
Turn lower arm so palm of hand faces up.

Pronation: 90 degrees
Turn lower arm so palm faces down.


Flexion: 80-90 degrees
Bend wrist so palm nears lower arm.

Extension: 70 degrees
Bend wrist in opposite direction.

Radial deviation: 20 degrees
Bend wrist so thumb nears radius.

Ulnar deviation: 30-50 degrees
Bend wrist so pinky finger nears ulna.


Flexion: 110-130 degrees
Flex knee and bring thigh close to abdomen.

Extension: 30 degrees
Move thigh backward without moving the pelvis.

Abduction: 45-50 degrees
Swing thigh away from midline.

Adduction: 20-30 degrees
Bring thigh toward and across midline.

Internal rotation: 40 degrees
Flex knee and swing lower leg away from midline.

External rotation: 45 degrees
Flex knee and swing lower leg toward midline.


Flexion: 130 degrees
Touch calf to hamstring.

Extension: 15 degrees
Straighten out knee as much as possible.

Internal rotation: 10 degrees
Twist lower leg toward midline.


Flexion: 45 degrees
Bend ankle so toes point up.

Extension: 20 degrees
Bend ankle so toes point down.

Pronation: 30 degrees
Turn foot so the sole faces in.

Supination: 20 degrees
Turn foot so the sole faces out.